Administration Method Versus Other Methods
The analysis of studies did not identify a clearly superior method, or combinations of methods, for the administration of TXA. All methods of administration effectively demonstrate equivalent efficacy at reducing calculated blood loss and the risk of transfusion during the perioperative episode of a primary TJA.
Tranexamic Acid in Total Joint Arthroplasty
Developed by the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons

The direct meta-analysis of 31 high quality studies provided no evidence to favor any specific method of TXA to reduce the risk of blood loss and need for transfusion during the perioperative episode of primary hip and knee arthroplasties.2,3 Subsequent network meta-analysis included a more expansive comparison between the methods of TXA administration with no evidence to clearly support a superior method of administration.4,5

Total Hip Arthroplasty
Intravenous and topical TXA have been compared together in multiple randomized clinical trials, which through direct meta-analysis showed no difference in the risk of transfusion.2 Network meta-analysis provided the opportunity to perform direct and indirect comparisons between low dose IV (< 20mg/kg or ≤ 1g), high dose IV (≥ 20mg/kg or > 1g), low dose topical (≤ 1.5g), high dose topical (> 1.5g), oral, and combined IV/topical TXA.2 In terms of the ability to reduce blood loss, no method of TXA administration was found to provide a significantly different outcome.2 Similar results in the network meta-analysis were observed for risk of transfusion with the exception that a combination of IV and topical TXA was equivalent to oral TXA but superior to low dose IV, high dose IV, low dose topical, and high dose topical TXA.2 However, the inconsistent result regarding combined IV/topical TXA likely represents bias from a limited number of studies and not superiority to other methods of TXA administration.

Total Knee Arthroplasty
Direct comparisons were performed between IV TXA and topical, oral, or combined IV/topical TXA, which found no difference in the risk of transfusion.3 Similar to the network meta-analysis of THA, direct and indirect comparisons were performed between low dose IV, high dose IV, low dose topical, high dose topical, and oral TXA as well as combinations of IV/topical and IV/oral TXA that resulted in no difference in their blood sparing properties.3 The significant differences between methods of TXA administration were observed in respect to the risk of transfusion being higher for low dose IV TXA compared to high dose IV or combined IV/topical TXA, which could represent a dose response or the limited number of studies.3